Novice (Greek: δόκιμος;Church Slavonic: послушникъ, poslushnik), lit. "one under obedience"—Those wishing to join a monastery begin their lives as novices. After coming to the monastery and living as a guest for not less than three days, the abbot or abbess may bless the candidate to become a novice. There is no formal ceremony for the clothing of a novice, he or she simply receives permission to wear the clothing of a novice. In the Eastern monastic tradition, novices may or may not dress in the blackinner cassock(Greek: Anterion (Αντερίον), Esorason (Εσώρασον); Church Slavonic: Podriasnik) and wear the soft monastic hat (Greek:Skoufos, Church Slavonic: Skufia), depending on the tradition of the local community, and in accordance with the abbot’s directives. In some communities, the novice also wears the leather belt. Monks are given aprayer ropeand instructed in the use of theJesus Prayer.
If a novice chooses to leave during the period of the novitiate, no penalty is incurred. He may also be asked to leave at any time if his behaviour does not conform to the monastic life, or if the superior discerns that he is not called to monasticism. When the abbot or abbess deems the novice ready, he is asked if he wishes to join the monastery. Some, out of humility, will choose to remain novices all their lives. Every stage of the monastic life must be entered into voluntarily.
Rassophore (Greek: ῥασοφόρος, rasophoros; Church Slavonic: рясофоръ, ryasofor), lit. "Robe-bearer"—If the novice continues on to become a monk, he is clothed in the first degree of monasticism at a service at which he receives thetonsure. Although there are no formalvowsmade at this point, the candidate is normally required to affirm his commitment to persevere in the monastic life. The abbot will then perform the tonsure, cutting a small amount of hair from four spots on the head, forming a cross. He is then given the outer cassock (Greek: ράσον, Rasson, Exorasson, or Mandorrason; Church Slavonic: рясса, Riassa), an outer robe with wide sleeves, from which the name of Rassophore is derived. He is also given akalimavkion, a cylindrical brimless hat, which is covered with a veil called anepanokalimavkion. (These are separate items in the Greek tradition; in the Russian tradition the two are stitched together and collectively called aklobuk.) If he has not previously received it, a leather belt is fastened around his waist. Hishabitis usually black, signifying that he is now dead to the world, and he receives a new name.
Although the Rassophore does not make formal vows, he is still morally obligated to continue in the monastic estate for the rest of his life. Some will remain Rassophores permanently without going on to the higher degrees.
Stavrophore (Greek: σταυρoφόρος, stavrophoros; Church Slavonic: крестоносецъ, krestonosets), lit. "Cross-bearer"—The next level for Eastern monastics takes place some years after the first tonsure when the abbot feels the monk has reached an appropriate level of discipline, dedication, and humility. This degree is also known as the Little Schema, and is thought of as a "betrothal" to the Great Schema. At this stage, the monk makes formal vows of stability of place, chastity, obedience and poverty. Then he is tonsured and clothed in the habit, which in addition to that worn by the Rassophore, includes the paramandyas (Greek: παραμανδυας; Church Slavonic: параманъ, paraman), a piece of square cloth worn on the back, embroidered with the instruments of thePassion, and connected by ties to a wooden cross worn over the heart. The paramandyas represents the yoke of Christ. Because of this addition he is now called Stavrophore, or Cross-bearer. He is also given a wooden hand cross (or "profession cross"), which he should keep in hisicon corner, and a beeswax candle, symbolic of monastic vigilance the sacrificing of himself for God. He will be buried holding the cross, and the candle will be burned at his funeral. In the Slavic practice, the Stavrophore also wears the monasticmantle, which symbolizes 40 days of the Lord's fasting on the Mountain of Temptation. The rasson worn by the Stavrophore is more ample than that worn by the Rassophore.
After the ceremony, the newly tonsured Stavrophore will remain invigilin the church for five days, refraining from all work, except spiritual reading. Currently, this vigil is often reduced to three days. The abbot increases the Stavrophore monk’sprayer rule, allows a more strict personal ascetic practice, and gives the monk more responsibility.
The Great Schema worn by Orthodox monks and nuns of the most advanced degree
Great Schema (Greek: μεγαλόσχημος, megaloschemos; Church Slavonic: Схима, Schima)—Monks whose abbots feel they have reached a high level of spiritual excellence reach the final stage, called the Great Schema. The tonsure of a Schemamonk or Schemanun follows the same format as the Stavrophore, and he makes the same vows and is tonsured in the same manner. But in addition to all the garments worn by the Stavrophore, he is given the analavos (Church Slavonic: analav) which is the article of monastic vesture emblematic of the Great Schema. For this reason, the analavos itself is sometimes called the "Great Schema". It drapes over the shoulders and hangs down in front and in back, with the front portion somewhat longer, and is embroidered with the instruments of the Passion and theTrisagion. The Greek form does not have a hood, the Slavic form has a hood and lappets on the shoulders, so that the garment forms a large cross covering the monk's shoulders, chest, and back. Another piece added is the Polystavrion (Πολυσταύριον, "Many Crosses"), which consists of a cord with a number of small crosses plaited into it. The polystavrion forms a yoke around the monk and serves to hold the analavos in place, and reminds the monastic that he is bound to Christ and that his arms are no longer fit for worldly activities, but that he must labor only for theKingdom of Heaven. Among the Greeks, the mantle is added at this stage. The paramandyas of the Megaloschemos is larger than that of the Stavrophore, and if he wears the klobuk, it is of a distinctive thimble shape, called akoukoulion, the veil of which is usually embroidered with crosses.
The Schemamonk also shall remain some days in vigil in the church. On the eighth day after Tonsure, there is a special service for the "Removal of the Koukoulion".
In some monastic traditions the Great Schema is never given or is only given to monks and nuns on their death bed, while in others, e.g., thecenobiticmonasteries onMount Athos, it is common to tonsure a monastic into the Great Schema only 3 years after commencing the monastic life.
In Russian and some other traditions, when a bearer of some monastic title acquires the Great Schema, his title incorporates the word "schema". For example, ahieromonkof Great Schema is called hieroschemamonk,archimandritebecomes schema-archimandrite,hegumen- schema-hegumen, etc. In the Russian Orthodox tradition, in such cases the part "schema" is commonly truncated to "схи" (sche), and correspondingly the titles are spelt as схимонах (schemonach), иеросхимонах (ieroschemonach), схиархимандрит (schearchimandrit), and схиигумен (scheigumen).